In 2000, UNESCO recognized the historic significance of this « Land of frankincense » by inscribing it on its World Heritage List 3 . It is in the region of Dhofar, south of Oman, that the highest quality resin is produced in the world. It is known as Royal Hojari. As an endemic plant, it benefits from exceptional weather conditions. It is used in perfumery but also for its medicinal virtues by the Omanis.
On the semi-desert high plateau, the trees, with several stems, are shorter than those of the coastal plain. The trees grow in an extremely dry climate.
On this limestone plateau, the climate is arid. It is on this high plateau that the frankincense tree thrives.
A semi-desert high plateau contemplates the coastline along a steep rocky barrier.
On this limestone plateau, the climate is arid, punctuated by the waves of monsoons periodically watering the coastal fringe. It is on this plateau that the frankincense tree thrives.
It is necessary to wait at least the age of nine to ten years, so that the tree reaches its adult size and produces a good quality resin. Flowering, hermaphrodite flowers 3a , takes place in early April.
Plant species have a certain characteristic. They are highly dependent on climate, availability of water, quality of sunlight, temperature and soil. Thus, the Boswellia in Oman can vary in many ways.
The peak of the mountain range is a very important natural element. Rains and winds from the coastal plain fade over the ridge.
Humidity levels drop sharply, leaving a semi-desert soil with desert and limestone, favoring the production of high-quality frankincense.
The famous Hojari frankincense is produced in an area located 25 km from the hinterland of Jebel Samhan, between 1000 and 1500m altitude. (between points B and C)
Beyond this area 500 to 1000m above sea level, the density of Boswellia sacra begins to decrease towards the interior of the desert (between points C and D).
The rains are occasional. The resins obtained from trees are not damaged by the rains. However too much drought could kill trees because their roots could not receive the necessary nutrients.4