According to Pliny the Elder, a Roman writer and naturalist of the 1st century, the journey consisted of 65 stages divided by stops for camels and payment points for traders.
The capital cities of the kingdoms were important stopping places for merchants.4aThey were charged high taxes or duties upon entry into the country. They also paid substantial fees for the services offered to them.
The Shisr fortification was built on an underground water source and sank under the sand. Shisr is some 180 km north of Salalah in the Rub Al Khali Desert.
This oasis, both agricultural site and caravan site, was also a very important stop for water on the road that brought the incense from the hinterland (Wadi Dawkah) to the ports of the coast: Al Baleed and Khor Rori
The port of Khor Rori - The City of Sumhuram - belonged to the Kingdom of Hadramout, (Yemen) open on the Gulf of Aden, it has long been the starting point of the incense caravans that, for centuries, have crossed the deserts.
The remains of the fortress are located on a rocky hill and are part of a larger defensive system of which there are still traces.
The port was refounded at the end of the first century by LL'ad Yalut, king of Hadramaout, (as evidenced by an inscription still visible on the site) to control the trading of incense in the Dhofar.
The history of the city of Al Baleed goes back more than 2000 years before our era and some archaeological research suggests that its prosperity dates back to the Iron Age..
Al Baleed has been one of the largest ports in the Indian Ocean. It has been an important trading post thanks to the export of incense to Rome and China. Objects from China (Ming period) and other countries show its importance on the Silk Road.
There are impressive archaeological remains (64 hectares), surrounded by a high wall on the west side. The wall is pierced by four doors.