Alexander the Great was so enthralled by the prospect of owning the means of production of frankincense that he considered adding Arabia to his conquests. Only his death prevented him from fulfilling his ambition.nabatéens The grandeur of the Nabatean cities flourished, as Petra gained profits from the Arabian incense trade by selling to the Greek and then Roman Empire.
In Wadi Rum (south of Petra), a 3,000-year-old cave paintings depict camel caravans passing through the valley and the bandits who preyed on them..
Rome The sacred incense was an indispensable element of imperial culture for devotional and state ceremonies. During the Roman Empire, 2.5 to 3 million kilogrammes of frankincense were reported to have been exported to Rome from Southern Arabia.
Persia In Persepolis and Susa (modern day Iran), frankincense was a prized commodity. Monuments at the Persepolis show King Darius I himself offering incense.Greece Although Greeks were importing incense from Syria (5th century BCE), Herodotus knew that frankincense came from further south of Arabia.
950 BCE. A visit by Queen Sheeba to King Solomon was to test his wisdom but almost to secure an agreement on frankincense and myrrh..Sayhadic Incense trade saw growth of several kingdoms and its decline meant their extinction. These kingdoms emerged to the west of Dhofar (an area known in Middle Age as the Sayhad).
Babylon The Babylonians living in the Fertile Crescent region around 3000 to 600 BCE imported frankincense from Africa.Egypt For almost thirty centuries, Ancient Egypt was the dominant civilization in the Mediterranean world, and perhaps the main frankincense consumers at that time
Since frankincense plant distribution was restricted botanically to southern Arabia, the trade would necessarily have come northward either by land or sea.
Eastern Arabia by the third millennium BCE and most likely by circa 5000 BCE.